## Program for Breadth First Search of Graph | Amazon

*Question*

Write a program for breadth first search. Given **n **vertex and set of edges, task is to do breadth first traversal of the graph.

**Pre-requisite:**

Breadth First Search Algorithm

*Graph* *Representation*

The most commonly used representation for graphs is adjacency matrices and adjacency lists. The adjacency matrix n*n where n is the number of vertices in the graph with the property that a[i][j] = 1 if edge(i, j) is present between i and j and a[i][j] = 0 if there is no such edge.

*Logic*

- Get
**n**from the user and dynamically create an n*n adjacency matrix to store the edges. - Get the set of edges from the user.
- Create
**Visited**array to check whether the node is visited or not. - Get the starting node from the user.
- Now, Implement the Breadth First Search algorithm.

let Q be queue. Q.enqueue( s ) //Inserting s in queue mark s as visited. while ( Q is not empty) //Removing that vertex from queue,whose neighbour will be visited now v = Q.dequeue( ) //processing all the neighbours of v for all neighbours w of v in Graph G if w is not visited Q.enqueue( w ) //add w in queue mark w as visited.

*Program*

#include<stdio.h> #define Max 10 int q[Max]; //queue int front=-1,rear=-1; int main() { int i,n,j; printf("Enter the number of vertices"); scanf("%d",&n); int *arr[n]; int visited[Max] ={0}; //intitalizing with 0 /*Dynamically create n*n matrix*/ for(i = 0; i<n; i++) arr[i] = (int*)malloc(n*sizeof(int)); for(i=0;i<n;i++) for(j=0; j<n; j++) arr[i][j] = 0; printf("Enter the edges...-1 -1 to exit\nsrc des\n"); do{ scanf("%d %d",&i,&j); if(i==-1 && j==-1) break; arr[i][j] = 1; //edge(i,j) where i and j are adjacent }while(1); /*Printing adjacency matrices*/ for(i=0;i<n;i++) { for(j=0; j<n; j++) printf("%d",arr[i][j]); printf("\n"); } printf("Enter the starting from node"); scanf("%d",&i); /*Breath first Traversal*/ push(i); //push to the queue visited[i] = 1; //mark node 'i' as visited printf("%d\n",i); //print node 'i' /*Repeat until queue becomes empty*/ while(!isQueueEmpty()) { i = deque(); printf("%d ",i); for(j=0; j<n; j++) { if(arr[i][j] == 1 &&!visited[j]) { push(j); printf("%d ",j); //print node 'j' visited[j] = 1; } } } } void push(int vertex) { if(front == -1) //queue is empty { front = 0; rear = 0; } q[rear] = vertex; //store value in queue rear++; //move rear forward } int deque() { int data; if(rear==-1) { printf("Queue is empty"); return -1; } data = q[front]; //Get data from front position front++; //move front forward if(front == rear) //queue is empty { front = -1; rear = -1; } return data; } int isQueueEmpty() { if(front == -1) return 1; else return 0; }

### Suggested Reading…

#### C program to find Height of Binary Tree | Amazon

#### Print the Maximum possible K digit number